I was asked about the incident with Professor Muhammed Kalisch who got in troubles for teaching that Muhammed and the prophets of Islam most probably didn't actually exist.
So you can understand I also have to explain the topic of 'religious education' in German schools which is mostly misunderstood by foreigners (And even, partly due to intention) also by Germans.
Religious education is a regular school subject in Germany.
Article 7 subsection 3 of the German Basic Law says:
Religious instruction shall form part of the regular curriculum in state
schools, with the exception of non-denominational schools. Without prejudice
to the state’s right of supervision, religious instruction shall be given in
accordance with the tenets of the religious community concerned. Teachers
may not be obliged against their will to give religious instruction.
That doesn't mean that everyone has to attend those lessons subsection 2 of the very same article says:
Parents and guardians shall have the right to decide whether children
shall receive religious instruction.
And furthermore do children have when they reach the age of 12 the right so unsubscribe or to subscribe themselves to those lesson.
I attended religious education (Roman Catholicism) until I ended the school and my final grade was an A. Since religious education is a regular subject it is also taken into account when calculating your Numerus clausus which might block you from studying certain fields if it's too bad. (Those children who don't attend religious education have to attend a subject called "Ethik" [best translated with Secular Ethics])
Since the 2 big Christian Churches in Germany and some Jewish Communities give religious education at school the muslims in Germany also demanded their right to teach Islam to muslim students in German school.
But they (and neither the Christian Churches or Jewish Communities) could send anyone into the schools to teach their religion (That would be a little bit too easy). Teachers in German schools have to have an academic education in pedagoy and their subjects of choice. Therefor it became necessary to install faculties for muslim theology in German who then educate the future teachers for muslim religious education.
Professor Muhammad Kalisch now is a professor in such a faculty whose responsiblity it is to teach prospect teachers. The problem with him is that he has a radical-critical approach to Islam. That means he doubts the historic existence of Muhammed.
The Coordinition Council of Muslims in Germany therefor distanced itself from him and announced that it couldn't advice anyone to study under Muhammed Kalisch.
That causes some problems. When it comes to religious education State and Church are heavily intertwined in Germany. The Churches need to put their teachers to some sort of academic education in Germany, but on the other hand don't need to accept anyone coming from those universities to teach their religion. Therefor they have some say in who teaches on the universities or not. The Catholic Church for example already banned liberal theologians like Eugen Drewermann from teaching in their theological faculties.
But since their isn't a united muslim body that would have the represtative legitimation as the Catholic Church certainly has for Catholicism there is an open question who has the right to repeal the teaching permission of muslim theologians.
As it stand now he won't educate prospect teachers anymore, but still is professor for "The Religion of Islam"
In the course of the controvesy many muslims even refused to call him by his name Muhammad anymore and just called him with his middle name (Sven Kalisch). Which insinuates that he in their opinion commited apostasy (And I guess you know what that would mean).